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Ozone disinfection Kinetics

Kinetics of ozone disinfection

Chemical disinfection by ozone can be achieved by bringing water in contact with gaseous ozone for a certain period of time. The kinetics of the deactivation of pathogenic microorganisms (disinfection) is comparable to a chemical reaction. The most commonly used model to describe water disinfection by ozone is the Chick-Watson law. This law can be mathematically represented as follows [6,22]:

k = Cn . t

k = reaction-constant, dependent on the type of microorganism and the disinfectant
C = disinfectant concentration
t = contact time, period of time that the disinfectant is in contact with water
n = constant

In most cases n equals 1, causing the deactivation of bacteria to become a first-order reaction. When the n constant (nearly) equals 1, Watson’s law can be approached as [22]:

k = C . t

During disinfection, this Ct-value is used. This value is a multiplication of the disinfectant concentration (C) in mg/L and contact time (t) in miutes, which is needed to deactivate a microorganism. Various levels of deactivation can be achieved. This is often expressed as a log reduction:

1 log reduction = 90% deactivation
2 log reduction = 99% deactivation
3 log reduction = 99,9% deactivation
4 log reduction = 99,99% deactivation

Much research has been conducted on Ct-values for various types of microorganisms and for various disinfectants. Data on Ct-values in literary sources may differ. While comparing disinfectants, the CT-value must always be associated with the log reduction. Apart from concentration and time there are other factors that influence this Ct-value. Examples are pH value, sunlight, water temperature, mixture of water and the disinfectant, and contact chamber design [6].

In the table below, Ct-values of the main types of microorganisms are represented, when ozone is used as a disinfectant. A lower concentration (C) in a larger time interval (t) is preferred [30]. Contact time is not ment to exceed 5 minutes, because this causes a decrease in residual concentration of ozone in the system [28].

Microorganism

kO3 (mg min l-1)

T (oC)

pH (-)

log reduction

Reference

E.coli

0,009

12

*

4 log

9

Legionella pneumophila

1,05

12

*

2 log

9

Rotavirus

0,006-0,06

5

6-7

2 log

5

Giardia lamblia (cysts)

0,17

25

7,2

2 log

16

Giardia muris (cysts)

0,27

25

7

2 log

16

Cryptosporidium parvum (oocysts)

5,39**

20

*

2 log

11

* no availbale data
** based on a more resistant chain

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